By Ms. Kylie Hinde, Provisional Psychologist
Play is recognised as a child’s main form of communication and is essential to engaging children. Piaget’s work, which positions children as learning through doing, experimenting and discovering was very influential in this regard. Sosinsky, Gilliam and Mayes (2007) also note the importance of learning how to use play therapeutically and as a means of communicating with and interacting positively with children. Play is an integral part of development, and can be important from early years and childhood, and even into teenage years. For example, Perry, Hogan, and Malin (2000) write that “Play, more than any other activity fuels the healthy development of children” (p.9). In the context of children and teenagers with ASD, play is often enjoyable, but can come with associated difficulties. For example, it’s common for children to have limited preferred modes of play, playing in repetitive ways, and to prefer playing alone. Despite this, research has indicated that engaging in targeted play intervention with children with ASD through a variety of creative mediums (puppets, art, clay, music, drama etc.) can develop:
- Flexibility in thinking
- Expressive language skills
- Social skills (i.e. the ability to negotiate, compromise and problem solve)
- Confidence and
- Self Esteem
Chang et al. (2017) also noted positive effects on emotional regulation for children with ASD who engaged in a play-based treatment approach.
Many children with ASD who come to therapy are stuck in unhelpful patterns of behaviour. Play within the therapy room can provide a safe space for them to explore alternatives. For example, an anxious child who takes the role of a worried puppet has an excellent opportunity to voice their unhelpful thoughts and try out some new strategies for managing their worries. Similarly, by using play with instruments and sound scapes, and taking on different characters, children are able to experiment with different perspectives and practice different behavioural options in relevant situations.
Like their children, many parents who come into therapy are stuck in unhelpful patterns of responding, and a playful approach can allow them to see things from a different perspective and try alternative responses. For example, parents might develop an understanding of the way anxiety is transmitted between family members and patterns of behaviour in the family when negative feelings are present. This may help parents be more mindful of the pattern when it occurs, allowing them to step back and respond differently. Play also allows parents to connect with their children in a positive way.
Using play at home
Sometimes play doesn’t come easily and parents of children with ASD can experience feelings of uncertainty, overwhelm, and sometimes even rejection. Designating 10-15 minutes of focused play time each day with your child, in an activity of their choosing, can help to build positive interactions. The below resource may be helpful in developing confidence when engaging in therapeutic play in the home. Choosing one or two of the PRIDE skills to focus on at any one time can be helpful to provide a point of focus in play.
Chang, Y., Shih, W., Landa, R., Kaiser, A., & Kasari, C. (2017). Symbolic play in school-aged minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48, 1436-1445. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3388-6
Gray, P. (2011). The decline of play and the rise of psychopathology in children and adolescents. American Journal of Play, 3(4), 443-463. Accessed via: https://www.journalofplay.org/sites/www.journalofplay.org/files/pdf-articles/3-4-article-gray-decline-of-play.pdf
Perry, B. D., Hogan, L., & Marlin, S. J. Curiority, pleasure and play: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Haaeyc Advocate, 9-12. Accessed via: http://chinadevpeds.com/resources/CuriosityPleasurePlay_Perry.pdf
PRIDE: Relationship Enhancement Strategies; developed by Eyberg, S., McNeil, C., & Urquiza, A. (2004). US Davis CAARE Center
Sosinsky, L.S., Gilliam, W.S., & Mayes, L.C. (2007). The preschool child. In A. Martin & F. Volkmar (Eds.), Lewis’s child and adolescent psychiatry: A comprehensive textbook (4th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.